Stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is blocked or reduced which causes cells in some areas of the brain died due to lack of oxygen and nutrients, therefore the body parts which are controlled by the damaged brain cannot function properly.

Causes of stroke include:

  1.   Abnormalities of blood vessels from birth
  2.   Broken blood vessels
  3.   Aneurysm -- thinning of the walls of blood vessels caused by the release of plaque or dirt that sticks to the walls


Brain tumors are abnormal tissues that arise due to abnormal cell growth in the brain. Brain tumors originating from brain cell tissue are referred to as primary brain tumors, while brain tumors originating from the spread of malignant tumors in other parts of the body to the brain are referred to as secondary tumors (metastasis).

Symptoms of a brain tumor include:

  1.   Headache : Headaches caused by brain tumors will get worse and regular analgesics won't relieve the pain.
  2. Nausea and vomiting with no known cause
  3.   Visual disturbances, blurred vision, double vision, narrowing of the visual field
  4.   Impaired feeling of thickness or decreased muscle strength in the upper arms or legs
  5.   Balance disorders
  6.   Difficulty speaking
  7.   Impaired concentration and confusion in performing daily activities
  8.   Changes in personality and behavior
  9.   Seizures, especially if they occur in someone with no previous history of seizures
  10.   Hearing disorders
  11.   Sleepy more often
  12.   Temporary memory impairment
  13.   Loss of consciousness



Spondylolithesis is simply referred to as a spinal shift. In general, spondylolisthesis shows symptoms of severe pain that will get worse when it is moved. Some risk factors for spondylolisthesis include:

  1.   Obesity : Excess weight will increase the burden on the spine.
  2.   Trauma : A history of accidents or falling from a height can lead to complications of spinal disorders in the future.
  3.   Wrong lifting position


Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP) is a condition caused by a protrusion of the nucleus (nucleus pulposus) from the spinal cord that presses on the nerves, causing pain and weakness in the limbs associated with the pinched nerve. Symptoms that will appear depending on the location of the pinched nerve, which include:

  1.   Pain radiates to the arm or leg : Pain in the lower back, buttocks, thighs, calves and sometimes radiating to the legs indicates if the pinched nerve is in the spine. While a pinched neck nerve will cause pain in the neck and shoulders that radiates to the arm.
  2.   Numbness or tingling
  3.   Muscle weakness


Spondylosis is a term that refers to spinal damage due to the aging process (degeneration) of the spine. Spondylosis can occur in the Cervical (backbone near the neck), Thoracic (upper spine), and Lumbar (lower spine).

Symptoms that appear can vary depending on where the spine is affected, but in general the symptoms of spondylosis include:

  1.   Stiffness or pain in the neck and back that goes away and comes back
  2.   Weakness, tingling or numbness in the feet or hands
  3.   Pain in the shoulder
  4.   Headache